Member of the European
Language Council

Call us: +4073 493 6290

28 Tudor Arghezi Street,
Bucharest, Romania
Join us:
   Home      phonetic alternations_verbs_present

Phonetic mutations in verbs in the Present

Vowel and consonant mutations occur very often in the Present Tense paradigm.

Play: phonetic alternations verbs present

The most common vowel mutations are:

a – ă: sar/sărim (I jump – we jump)

ă – e: văd/vezi (I see – you see)

o – oa – u: pot/poate/putem (I can – he can – we can)

i – e: vin/venim (I come – we come)

Most mutations occur in the root verb, as we can see in the examples mentioned above.

The vowel mutation: e – ea dansez/dansea (I dance – he dances) occurs in the Present Tense suffix (ez / eaz).

All the verbs with the suffix "ez" register this type of mutation in the third person singular.


The most common consonant mutations are:

d – z: d/vezi (I see – you see), deschid/deschizi (I open – you open), cred/crezi (I believe – you believe)

s – ş: cunosc/cunoști (I know – you know), citesc/citești (I read – you read)

t – ţ: trimit/trimiți (I send – you send)

All the consonant mutations occur in the 2nd person singular (d/vezi: I see/you see). The Present ending "i" determines a consonant mutation.

Grammatical features

Most mutations in Romanian are the result of some special phonetic laws that can be explained by differences in the phonetic structure of various forms of the verbs in the Present.

The chronology of these mutations is related to the changes produced in the history of the Romanian language. The oldest mutation is "a – ă"and dates from the twelfth century.

The mutations increase the irregular grammatical features of the verbs in the Present and occur also in the Past Tense paradigm (forming the participle).

All the mutations in the Present Tense paradigm occur also in the noun and adjective inflection.


Mona Moldoveanu Pologea, Ph.D. Linguist

ROLANG School Managing Director